To what extent is private application possible? Can non-parties to agreements containing vertical restraints obtain declaratory judgments or injunctions and claim damages? Can the contracting parties themselves assert claims for damages? What are the remedies? How long should a company expect a private law enforcement action? Article 101 applies to agreements which `are likely to affect trade between Member States [of the Union]`. If the agreements do not affect trade between Member States, but nevertheless affect trade within a particular EU Member State, they may be examined within the meaning of the national competition rules of that Member State (see relevant national chapters). However, the Guidelines on the concept of conditions of commercial conditions specify that vertical agreements on products for which neither the supplier nor the buyer has a market share of more than 5 % and for which the supplier does not generate EU-wide revenues exceeding EUR 40 million should not, in principle, be considered appropriate: influence trade. Pursuant to Article 101(2), restrictions of competition which infringe Article 101(1) and which are not eligible for an exemption under Article 101(3) are to be annulled. The precise consequences of a declaration of nullity depend on the text of the contract itself and the provisions of national contract law applicable to the severability clause. There are two main alternative consequences – either the entire Agreement is invalid and unenforceable, or the Prohibited Restriction may be severed from the rest of the Agreement and the Prohibited Restriction alone is invalid and unenforceable. .