1. What is the rule of law? How can it help prevent tyranny? The participation of the Senate also makes the agreements themselves more stable – and therefore more attractive to foreign governments – because it is more difficult for the president to repeal them after the amicable agreement. Publius remarks, once again, he thinks at home in a logic that applies to executive agreements: “[A] contract is just another name for a company, and. It would be impossible to find a nation that would do business with us, which should be absolutely binding on it, but only for us as long and as long as we consider it right to be attached to it. But agreements reached unilaterally by leaders – such as directives imposed unilaterally by leaders – are just as easily annulled by their successors. Nations that get used to being abandoned in this way will be less likely to enter into serious negotiations on serious issues, even by the serious means of real treaties. The long-term prognosis of this practice is a rapidly fluctuating policy, imposed by short plebiscitary majorities, insensitive to minority views. It doesn`t matter who, at one time or another, takes the majority. It`s not about climate change or immigration policy, or the policy by which a Republican president will almost certainly try to use the same powers once they`re established. The fact is that the separation of powers is the foundation of constitutionalism. Publius – see Federalist 47 – had a sentence for the combination of powers that threaten a swollen presidency of both sides: “the very definition of tyranny.” Plato regarded tyranny as the “fourth and worst disorder of a state.” Tyrants do not have “exactly the capacity that is the instrument of judgment” – reason. The tyrannical man is enslaved because the best part of him (reason) is enslaved, and likewise, the tyrannical state is enslaved because it also lacks reason and order. Roman historians like Sueton, Tacitus, Plutarch, and Josephus often spoke of “tyranny” as opposed to “freedom.”  Tyranny was linked to imperial rule and rulers who took too much authority from the Roman Senate. Those who were the defenders of “freedom” tended to be pro-republic and pro-Senate.
For example, Suetonius wrote about Julius Caesar and his assassins: The Republic studies the importance of justice, looks at different types of governments, and sketches out the ideal state. It touches on many topics, including law and tyranny. Cicero`s head and hands were cut off and nailed to the Senate stage to remind everyone of the dangers he is doing against tyranny.  Since then, there has been a tendency to discuss tyranny abstractly, while limiting examples of tyrants to ancient Greek rulers. Philosophers were more expressive than historians. This is a close competition in which the recent assertion of executive power crowns the rest, but the possibility for the government to communitize the contractual power of the Senate in the negotiation of an international agreement on climate change is leading the race. The explicit partnership of the presidency and the Senate by the Constitution in the nation`s commitment to comprehensive agreements, combined with the two-thirds majority needed in the upper house of Congress to confirm them, underscores the unique dangers of taking an institution out of the process. . . .