The first order of Washington, in June 1789, ordered the heads of the executive services to report on their operations. Over the years, presidents have generally adopted executive orders and other measures to set public holidays for federal public servants, regulate the public service, designate public lands as Indian reserves or national parks, and organize, among other things, federal disaster response. William Henry Harrison, who died after one month in office, is the only president who has not issued a single executive term; Franklin D. Roosevelt, the only president to hold more than two terms, signed by far most executive orders (3,721), many of which have implemented important parts of his sweeping New Deal reforms. Virtually every president since George Washington has used the executive in different ways during their tenure. Several presidents have used executive orders to impose citizens` rights legislation against opposition from the state or local authorities. In 1948, Truman issued an executive mandate to dispossess the country`s armed forces, while Dwight D. Eisenhower issued an order in 1957 to send federal troops to integrate public schools in Little Rock, Arkansas. The Case-Zablocki Act of 1972 requires the President to notify the Senate within 60 days of an executive agreement. The president`s powers to conclude such agreements have not been restricted. The reporting requirement allowed Congress to vote in favor of repealing an executive agreement or to refuse funding for its implementation.   Executive agreements – that is, international agreements between heads of state or their representatives, usually without the consent of Parliament – are not explicitly permitted in the Constitution. The Constitution remains silent on international agreements, unless it gives the President, in cooperation with the Senate, the power to conclude and conclude treaties.
Nevertheless, the principle that the U.S. contractual capacity for negotiation and signature is not exhausted has long been established. This principle has been recognized several times in the real direction of U.S. foreign policy since the beginning of the Republic. Since the mid-19th century, but especially since World War II, the application of executive agreements in U.S. practice has increasingly spent more and more of the application of treaties. Second, while it is widely accepted that, under the “executive power” clause, the president has the power to enter into exclusive executive agreements that are not inconsistent with legislation in areas where the primary responsibility lies with Congress, the question arises as to whether the President alone can enter into an agreement incompatible with an act of Congress or whether a single executive agreement may succeed previous laws of Congress. The prevailing idea, which is rooted in the assumption that it would be unacceptable for an act of one person – the president – to cancel an act of Congress, is that the only executive agreements in the United States are ineffective, insofar as they conflict with an earlier act of Congress in an area of congressional jurisdiction.